Big Tech and Recent IPOs

Figuring out the (IPO) Initial Public Offering Cycle

Aakriti

30th Sep'22

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) is the process through which a private company offers its shares to the public in a new stock issuance for the first time.  IPO is a way of raising equity capital from public investors for companies/businesses.

 

How an Initial Public Offering (IPO) Works

 

  • A company is considered private before an IPO. In a private company, the business grows with a relatively small number of shareholders. These include early investors like the founders, family, and friends, as well as venture capitalists or angel investors.

 

  • An IPO is a way of raising money for a company. This money is generally used for growth and expansion.

 

  • IPO increases transparency and the share listing credibility proves to be helpful in obtaining better terms while seeking borrowing.

 

  • Upon reaching a stage in its growth process where a company believes it is mature enough for the rigors of SEC regulations, it will begin to advertise its interest in going public.

 

Typically, this stage of growth is when a company has received a private valuation of approximately $1 billion, also known as unicorn status. However, it is not essential to be valued at $1 billion in order to go public.


 

  • The public market provides investors with a great opportunity to buy shares in the company and contribute capital to a company’s shareholders' equity.

 

  • Overall, the total shares a company sells and the price for which shares sell are the factors that generate equity value for the company’s new shareholders. 

  • Shareholders' equity represents shares owned by investors. With an IPO, the shareholders' equity increases significantly with cash from the primary issuance.

two laptop screens and a phone screen

What is an IPO Cycle?

The IPO does not simply consist of one task that needs to be done in order for a company to go public. The life cycle of an IPO, also known as the IPO cycle is a rather comprehensive and time-consuming process. There are several regulatory compliances required to be fulfilled, essentially with The Securities and Exchange Board of India(SEBI). 

 

The formal procedure to create and issue an IPO is very well structured and extensively documented. In order to be completely fair, a company has to go through all warrants of bureaucracy, in order to go public.

 

Once a company decides to go public, it has to hire one or more investment bankers to manage the entire process from start to finish and additionally act as an underwriter for the issue. Hiring a team of lawyers is also essential to ensuring legal compliance.

 

The IPO cycle consists of broadly the following steps:

 

Registration and Approval by SEBI


The very first step is submitting a registration statement to the Securities and Exchange Board of India. This statement contains information related to a company’s financial health and its potential business plans. SEBI carefully examines this statement and upon finding it satisfactory gives its approval.

 

Preparation of a Draft Prospectus


After this comes the Draft Red Herring Prospectus (RHP). The DRHP is a detailed document that lists the financial performance and stability, business plans, office & plant locations, and the expected price range of the IPO of the company. The DRHP is meant for the inspection of potential investors.

a computer screen and a phone

Roadshows

 

If you want your IPO to be successful you will have to consider the interest of the investors and take care of it. When a company goes public the management staff and investment bankers of the said company embark on ‘roadshows’ across the country. As the name suggests they visit major commercial centers to attract high-net-worth individuals(HNIs) and large corporations. Here they advertise the company’s business plans and growth potential in front of potential investors.

 

Approval by SEBI


SEBI may approve the registration statement or suggest amendments to DRHP. If it suggests amendments to DRHP then the approval is subject to making the instructed amendments.

 

Price band


A tentative price band is given by the company in the DRHP. Although the final price band is announced after SEBI issues the approval. In the case of fixed price IPOs, the price of the issue is announced by the company. They may also decide the price later. This is called the book building method. Additionally, the company and the underwriters also finalize the size of the IPO along with the price band.

 

Bidding


After a number on the size and the price band of the issue, the dates for the same are determined. When the dates finally get announced the investors analyze the IPO and place their bids to purchase the shares of the company.

 

Share Allotment


Next, the investment bankers of the company analyze the bids made and decide on a cut-off price. Thereafter, the shares are allotted to investors in proportion to their bids.

 

Listing

 

picture of a stock market graph

When the shares are allotted, the shares of the company are successfully listed on the stock exchanges. The shares are credited into the Demat account of the investors who were allotted shares. Those who do not get a shared allotment, receive their money back.



 

Advantages and Disadvantages of an IPO

The primary objective of an IPO is to raise capital for a business. It can also come with other advantages as well as disadvantages. Make sure to make an assessment before you take any serious decision.

 

Advantages

 

  • The company gets access to investment from the entire investing public to raise capital. This makes it easier to acquire deals (share conversions) and increases the company’s exposure, prestige, and public image, which can have a positive impact on the company’s sales and profits.

 

  • Increased transparency as quarterly reporting is required.

  • It also helps a company receive more favorable credit borrowing terms than a private company. 

 

Disadvantages

 

Companies may have to face several disadvantages when going public. It is best to choose alternative strategies. Some of the major disadvantages include -

 

  • IPOs are expensive and the costs of maintaining a public company are ongoing, along with this there are additional costs of doing business.

 

  • Fluctuations in a company's share price can be a distraction for management. This may be compensated and evaluated on how stocks perform rather than real financial results. 

 

  • Companies are required to disclose financial, accounting, tax, and other business information. Disclosures of such information publicly can potentially help competitors uncover your secrets and business methods for their benefit.

 

  • Rigid leadership and governance by the management/ board of directors can make it seriously difficult to retain good managers willing to take risks. 

 

  • Continuing to be private is always an option that companies have. Instead of going public, companies may also consider bids for a buyout. There are other alternatives that can be considered if a company is unwilling to go public.




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A student in more ways than one. Trying to feed her curiosity with news, philosophy, and social commentary. 

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