Instructional Design and Technology

Supriti Tripathy

12th Jul'21
Instructional Design and Technology | OpenGrowth

In this tech era where digitalization is the key factor that has the potential to run an economy, instructions go hand in hand to make the transmission easier from paper to your e-learning portals. Impact of technology is such that everything we want today we can access online. Tutorials, e-books, knowledge hubs all have a different library space in the e-market. Instructional design in the field of science helps to design, develop and implement learning products and services with the help of instructions. Employing the technology to make the product more approachable and provide better service is what gives meaning to this subject.

The discipline follows a systematic process to develop an innovative learning solution. Technology Awareness in schools, colleges, offices, industries and almost in every sector is mandatory. Learning is the key to a better world. It allows us to update ourselves from the monotonous way of doing a job and look at better solutions and more viable prospects. Instructional Technology encompasses the instructional design process. It is much more than hardware and software components. It collaborates the entire process and gives better access to information with the help of tech tools.




The Process

Instructional design and technology (IDT) can be better understood by the following step-by-step approach.


Step 1: Analysis

Analyzing the needs of the customer, the problems faced in traditional methods, business requirements, long-term plans, learning objectives help in designing the perfect product.


Step 2: Design

Using all your resources effectively, design the learning product faster. Instructional materials and lesson plans are drafted. The curriculum is sorted for the long term.


Step 3: Implementation and Training

Once the product and services are ready, training is imparted in the form of presentations, e-learning, guides, hubs, job aids, and the implementation is carried on.


Step 4: Evaluation/ Feedback

Few models assess if the training imparted got the desired results in the job. Did it have a positive change in how the employee/student worked compared to before? All this assessment is necessary to know the effectiveness of the product delivered. Some of the models are Philips ROI Methodology, Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Training Evaluation, Learning Transfer Evaluation Model, etc.



To get a clear picture, let’s understand this example. Suppose your company wants to automate and invests in an ERP system. It will require a third party to design the model that is customized as per the company's needs. This is the job of an instructional designer. He collaborates with the various departments of the company, designs an ERP system, and imparts training about the functionality of the system. The learning package with the performance improvement points is part of the implementation. Finally, once the ERP goes into the floor and is utilized by the staff, it is evaluated for its effectiveness. 


Types of Instructional Design Models

Several design models allow the designer to take on any approach best suited to him. However, the process is quite basic as mentioned in the article. We will look at the models briefly.



As the name abbreviates, ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each phase of this model allows repetitions and changes before jumping on to the next phase. 


Cathie Moore’s Action Mapping

Via action mapping and visual approach, this model creates practical scenarios to develop the best design. Demonstration enables the learner to achieve better performance. Everything on the action map justifies its existence to the business goals.


Kemp Design Model

Kemp adopts a circular structure and looks to resolve the task from the learner’s perspective. The model allows revisions and adjustments among the elements to achieve the perfect outcome from the best-suited design.


Merill’s First Principles of Instruction

Proposed By David Merill in the year 2002, this has five principles namely - Problem Task, Activation, Demonstration, Application, and Integration. The approach enables students to understand the problem area, apply existing knowledge and demonstrate to resolve it, apply new techniques and information, and integrate all through discussion.


Successive Approximation Model (SAM)

An alternative to ADDIE, SAM utilizes small quick steps to get to the goal. It can be tested and challenged before reaching the final cut. This type of approximation over real-time data analysis can help the designer tailor the user experience to the learner.


As a Profession

A degree in Instructional Design and Technology can fetch you the following positions:

  • Instructional Designer/Engineer/Writer/Trainer
  • Sales Instructional Developer
  • E-learning Curriculum Developer
  • Learning Consultant
  • Training Specialist
  • Project Manager
  • Academic Director 

And the list goes on. With technology proficiency, you can work in any setting, be it business, healthcare, government, education, etc. 




The Future of IDT

Learning approaches never go outdated. We evolve through them. As we move towards futuristic development in the years to come, Instructional Design and Technology can enhance and make a significant impact on real simulations. These goals are a part of a larger strategy and with the industries’ adaptation to new technologies, we will be able to deliver massive results and create the best customer experiences. 


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A believer of good things and pursuer of diverse avocation, she is a fiction lover and a simple writer. Supriti has a number of professions to her list and she feels challenges are the only answers to failures.


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